Archive for the ‘Publications’ Category

Metrics for Energy Efficient Buildings: How Do We Measure Efficiency?

Tuesday, September 27th, 2016
efficiency level conceptual meter indicates 100 percent, isolated on white background

When it comes to an entire house or building, or comparing homes or buildings, what should the measurement be?

Some measurements are very direct like the height cleared by the Olympic high jumping gold medalist this summer. Efficiency has a number of nuances, though, that make measuring it difficult in terms that allow consumers to make informed decisions. When it comes to an entire house or building, or comparing homes or buildings, what should the measurement be? And how should you compare energy use on-site versus off-site? How do you determine what is efficient about the building versus the operations of the building? And how should renewable energy use or the time of energy use, and time-dependent cost of energy use factor in? Should the emissions of the source of the energy used be factored? To learn more, read the paper written by FSEC’s Deputy Director Philip Fairey and Natural Resources Defense Council’s David Goldstein.

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Metrics for Energy Efficient Buildings: How Do We Measure Efficiency?*


*This paper was presented at the 2016 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Pacific Grove, CA in August  2016.

Can a Water Heater Help Cool Your House?

Tuesday, September 27th, 2016
Heat pump water heater inside laundry room of house, photo.

Heat pump water heaters were tested in the lab and in the field.

Most electric water heaters use an electric resistant rod in the tank. But there is another option for electric water heaters – one that is familiar to most Floridians, and that is a dedicated heat pump for heating hot water. Just like a regular heat pump for heating the air in your house, the heat pump water heater has a small compressor unit on top that uses vapor compression to heat the water. Prior FSEC research on heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in Florida showed that they saved approximately 66% of the energy needed to heat water with an electric resistance system. HPWHs also create a quantity of cooled, dehumidified air from the compressor section of the unit as a by-product of their operation. FSEC researchers found out that a HPWH coupled to the conditioned living space can reduce space-conditioning energy in a cooling-dominated climate, but with qualifications a lab test was undertaken to investigate the effect of coupling a garage located HPWH to the conditioned space with ductwork. With the HPWH ducted to and from the interior, cooling energy dropped by 4% or 0.8 kWh/day. Effect on space heating energy for this configuration could not be determined. Experiments also investigated using an outdoor air source for the HPWH, to supplement ventilation. During the cooling season, the HPWH tempered the outdoor air with only a minimal impact on cooling energy. Space heating energy increased by 18% or 1.4 kWh/d. The space coupling of the HPWH had a minimal impact on water heating efficiency.

In later field evaluation, eight occupied homes were retrofitted with a HPWH coupled to the conditioned space. Results were more pronounced than the lab evaluation: cooling energy savings averaged 8% (1.1 kWh/day). Space heating energy use increased by 24%, although with considerable variation and little application in Florida’s mild climate. The evaluation suggested the coupling eroded some of the HPWH water heating energy use savings, reducing it by 0.4 kWh/day or 11%. If not located in the house, you often end up with a slightly cooler garage.

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Measured Performance of Ducted and Space-Coupled Heat Pump Water Heaters in a Cooling Dominated Climate*


*This paper was presented at the 2016 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Pacific Grove, CA on August 22 -26, 2016.

Getting to a Near-Zero Energy Existing Home

Tuesday, September 27th, 2016
Rear view of house with screened in back porch and solar electric array with 36 panels on roof

Near-zero energy use home after deep energy retrofits.

Monitoring results over a four-year period document a phased retrofit applied to a central Florida home with very high electricity consumption, eventually ending in a home with near-zero energy use. The retrofit included simple pass-through measures, such as the installation of efficient lighting and low-flow shower heads, as well as deeper measures which included a high-efficiency space heating and space cooling controlled by a smart thermostat, a heat pump water heater, and ENERGY STAR® appliances. The average household electricity use was reduced through a combination of these efficiency measures and photovoltaic power generation by 82%. Results from the case study, and nine other deep retrofits suggest how an effective zero-energy home (ZEH) program can be implemented in otherwise poorly performing existing homes.

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From Energy Guzzler to Near-Zero Energy Home: Lessons from the Phased Deep Retrofit Project

*This paper was presented at the 2016 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Pacific Grove, CA on August 22 -26, 2016.

A More Efficient Way to Dry Clothes?

Tuesday, September 27th, 2016
Clothes and towels inside the dryer, photo.

Clothes dryers with heat pump technology were installed in eight project field homes.

Electric clothes dryers represent 5% (790 kWh) of annual energy use in Florida homes. Clothes dryers with heat pump (HPCD) technology, which use substantially less energy than standard resistance dryers, are relatively new to the domestic market. In eight FSEC project field homes, electric resistance clothes dryers were replaced with a new unvented HPCD. The estimated median energy savings are 34% (264 kWh/year or 0.72 kWh/day), and average annual savings are 36% (308 kWh/year or 0.9 kWh/day).

Dryer energy use graph, site 25, January 2014 to December 2015

Energy use showed saving more than 30 percent.

Although HPCDs use less electricity than standard resistance dryers, they still release a significant amount of heat from their operation. The unvented units that were located inside the home led to very high utility room temperatures and increases in space-cooling energy that may compromise identified savings; this is an issue the manufacturer is addressing. Given the heat issues, these unvented appliances are appropriate in Florida only if they will be installed outside of the conditioned space—typically in the garage. We further speculate, based on observed findings, that another technology—vented heat pump clothes dryer—may be the most appropriate dryer system type for Florida conditions.

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Measured Performance of Heat Pump Clothes Dryers*


*This paper was presented at the 2016 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Pacific Grove, CA on August 22 -26, 2016.

Does Purchasing a Supplemental High-Efficiency Mini-Split Heat Pump Make Sense?

Tuesday, September 27th, 2016
Mini split air conditioning fan above interior house door near stairway, photo.

Ductless mini-split heat pumps were installed in the main living area of 10 Central Florida homes.

In Florida, space heating and space cooling is customarily accomplished by central systems with unavoidable air distribution losses as ducts – often leaky – pass through unconditioned space. High-efficiency 1-ton, supplemental, inverter-driven ductless mini-split heat pumps with a 25.5 seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), and 12 heating seasonal performance factor (HSPF), were installed in the main living area of 10 central Florida homes with the goal of reducing space heating and cooling energy by decreasing runtime of these less efficient systems. The SEER rating is 1.8 times as efficient as the new federal minimum level for conventional central systems and even more efficient than the older systems in these homes

Installed as a supplement, the mini-split installations showed median energy savings of 33% (6.7 kWh/day) for space cooling and 59% (6.5 kWh/day) for heating in the existing homes where they were added. An added consumer benefit is a redundant heating and cooling system, creating tolerable interior conditions during main system failures.

Two additional homes received high-efficiency, ductless heat pumps as complete central system replacements – a single ducted unit and a multi-split design. These homes exhibited cooling energy use savings of 37% (7.8 kWh/day) and 29% (3.5 kWh/day), respectively. While significant cooling savings were measured, the multi-split installation suffered comfort issues. The mini-split replacement, however, showed superior interior moisture control and maintained the space 1oF lower on average.

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Evaluation of Mini-Split Heat Pumps as Supplemental and Full System Retrofits in a Hot Humid Climate*


*This paper was presented at the 2016 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Pacific Grove, CA on August 22 -26, 2016.

Can Smart Thermostats Save Energy?

Tuesday, September 27th, 2016
NEST thermostat reading 76 degrees installed on wall

“Smart” thermostats were installed in over 30 research homes.

Thermostats are the central switch that controls operation of heating and cooling systems—commonly the largest energy end use in homes. That energy setup/setback has potential for energy savings has been demonstrated repeatedly in well-controlled evaluations. Thus understanding how the occupants and thermostat interact is key to controlling energy use. Programmable thermostats have often been bypassed by occupants. Newer “smart” thermostats get around these problems by self-programming depending on heuristic or machine learning evaluation of user control habits as well as sensed occupancy. These modern devices use a combination of data on occupancy, weather, and thermostat-setting preference to help consumers with automated setback/setup schedules.

Researchers at FSEC installed smart thermostats, primarily the Nest Learning Thermostat, in more than 30 research homes. A full year of sub-metered hourly temperature and heating and cooling system operation data were available prior to the installation of the smart thermostat allowing detailed evaluation of temperature-related changes. Overall measured heating and cooling energy savings averaged 9.5% with some significant variation among homeowners.

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Evaluation of the Space Heating and Cooling Energy Savings of Smart Thermostats in a Hot-Humid Climate using Long-term Data*


*This paper was presented at the 2016 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Pacific Grove, CA on August 22 -26, 2016.

FSEC Research Presented at 2014 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings

Wednesday, August 20th, 2014

FSEC researchers presented their research findings at the 2014 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Pacific Grove, CA on August 17-22, 2014. Check out their research publications:

3D view of exhaust fan

One study met ASHRAE 62.2 levels of ventilation with a high quality, quiet exhaust fan rated for continuous runtime, with an insulated exhaust duct to limit condensation.

What are the implications of mechanically introducing humid outside air into residential buildings, compared to the indoor air quality benefits?

Take a look at the results of a study of 10 homes in Gainesville, FL that includes impact on energy use, comfort, durability, and cost.


In another study of mechanical ventilation in homes, two lab homes, constructed to represent characteristics of typical existing Florida homes, were monitored. They were configured with tight and leaky building envelopes, and with and without mechanical ventilation. Simulation results of high performance new homes with mechanical ventilation, and typical older homes with and without air tightening and mechanical ventilation, were also presented.